- The management of patients with acanthosis nigricans addresses the underlying cause, the identification of patient’s history, a targeted physical examination, focused diagnostic laboratory tests, and occasionally radiologic evaluation
- Relevant historical information includes age at onset, presence or absence of a family history, medication, transplant history, and presence or absence of symptoms related to hyperinsulinemia (with or without virilism), hypercortisolism and internal malignancy (with or without weight loss).
- Acanthosis nigricans has also been associated with renal and lung transplantation.
- Physical examination should document obesity, masculinization, lymphadenopathy, cushingoid features, and organomegaly.
- Initial laboratory screening should include fasting blood glucose and serum insulin tested concurrently to confirm or exclude insulin resistance.
- Specific investigations
- Document obesity based on ideal body weight, height, body mass index (BMI)
- Consider fasting blood glucose and insulin levels in parallel.
- Also consider ordering HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and fasting lipoprotein profile in obese patients.
- Depending on historical clues, screen for other endocrine diseases.
- In case of malignancy refer to appropriate specialist for the best diagnostic procedure.
- Consider drugs as a cause.
- Consider familial/genetic disorders as a cause.
Treat the underlying cause - correction of hyperinsulinemia, weight reduction in obesity associated AN
- Oral agents like retinoids, dietary oils
- Microdermabrasion and fractional lasers are helpful in reduction of acanthosis nigricans
PREVENTION: Weight management